Programmers and developers are evolving rapidly. There are several choices when it comes to programming languages that are suitable for experts or beginners and different application methods. But which one is most appropriate in modern reality? It depends on the needs and goals of the programmer.

People who want a good job, opportunities, and other benefits should know the most demanded programming languages in 2023 to learn.

Before we break down the most demanded programming languages in 2023, we must have an overview of all the available types. This will help us understand how the code is applied and developed.

Let’s analyze the 5 main types of programming languages:

Procedural: Defines a list of structured procedures and actions for program formation. It includes commands that divide the entire program into functions, operators, and variables. For example, you can imagine C, Java, PASCAL, etc.

Functional: Programs are developed by using and creating functions. The emphasis is on expression. The basis of this programming language is lambda calculus, which uses conditional expressions and recursion. The most popular languages in this group are Haskell, SML, Scala, and F#.

Object-oriented: Based on modules with data in the form of fields and codes as procedures, they provide many functions, including abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, and classes. One of its many features is code security due to encapsulation, with the ability to improve upon it without changing the original code. Such languages include Java, C++, C#, Python, JavaScript, and others.

Scripting: It doesn’t need a build step. Languages are often used for applications, games, and multimedia. Suitable for plugins and browser extensions. The most popular examples are JavaScript, PHP, PERL, Shell, Python, and Ruby.

Logic: Languages are based on formal logic, they don’t tell machines what to do, but they leave restrictions on tasks. The primary examples of this group are PROLOG and ASAP, which are necessary for Response Set and Datalog.

By understanding all types of programming languages, we can move on to the best ones by 2023.

It is not necessary to explore all the options at once. However, for starters, it is enough to deal with one and, after achieving results in it, move on to study and master new methods of code writing.


Without using JavaScript in any way, it is impossible to be a good software developer in today’s reality. Stack Overflow developers conducted a survey according to which this language is considered the most famous and popular for 10 years in a row. Almost 70% of respondents indicated that they had used it.

Along with HTML and CSS, JavaScript plays an essential role in web development. Many popular sites, including Facebook, Gmail, YouTube, and others, rely on JavaScript. With its help, it is possible to create interactive pages. It is primarily considered a front-end language suitable for browsers but can be used through Node.js to develop scalable web applications.

The syntax is simple, flexible, and suitable for all popular browsers, so the language is suitable for beginners due to its convenience. Today, with their help, you can do almost everything at a high level.

The main advantages of JavaScript:

  • Simple syntax.
  • Client-side execution.
  • Huge community support.
  • Rapid growth and development.
  • High availability of libraries and frameworks.
  • Easily extensible through plugins.
  • A high degree of interoperability with other languages.
  • Easy to learn.


  • Do not support multiple inheritances.
  • Client-side execution raises security concerns.
  • Hard to detect errors at runtime as errors occur on the browser side and not on the server.

It is recommended to start learning the language described for its simplicity to develop applications for smartphones or web platforms, games, and other purposes. The language itself was created in 1995 but was later called LiveScript. The main specialization is front-end, but you can claim the full-stack development title.


Go (also called Golang or Go language) is an open-source programming language developed by Google engineers to create dependable and efficient software. Go is a compiled language with high query execution speed and open source; it has many advantages, so it is loved by many programmers worldwide.

It is a low-level language ideal for system programmers. In terms of functionality, there are almost all the typical features of C and C++, but there is no complex syntax. It is much easier to learn and is ideal for developing web servers and complete machine learning packages.

Benefits of Go:

  • Easy to learn but powerful and fast.
  • Simple syntax.
  • Extensive built-in libraries.
  • Quick compilation and execution speed.
  • Memory-safe and automatic garbage collection.
  • Lightweight goroutines that support concurrency.


  • Does not support generics, or the ability to write abstract, implicit code
  • A young language with a small ecosystem.
  • Incompatible with function overloading.
  • Not conventionally object-oriented.


Python is one of the best programming languages in the world. It is considered the most convenient; its syntax is clear and reminiscent of English. This factor makes it good for beginners.

It brings together many applications, making it a versatile and powerful tool to choose from. For example, the Django platform is written in Python. It is open-source and suitable for server web development. The site is the most popular, multifunctional, and easy to learn, and it was used to create some resources, including Mozilla and Instagram.

Python is applicable in scientific computing and engineering due to the presence of NumPy and SciPy packages. Python is well suited for teaching programming and scientific activities, and the language is excellent for developing smartphone applications.

The language is fast and easy to use and is considered the best programming language for learning in 2023.

Main advantages:

  • Easy to learn and use due to its simple syntax, increasing developer productivity.
  • Great library of code and frameworks.
  • Extensive and supportive community.
  • Easily scalable for larger applications.
  • Compile scripts at runtime.
  • Easy to debug with line-by-line code execution and consistent bug reports.
  • Easy integration with web services.
  • Good for a quick test of ideas.


  • Low code execution speed due to line-by-line processing.
  • Python database access layer is primitive and underdeveloped.
  • Its flexible data type makes it memory inefficient.
  • Not suitable for mobile development due to its memory requirements.
  • It is not recommended for front-end applications.
  • It does not support multiple threads.

For the last 5 years, Python has been at the top of the most popular development languages. It’s free, open source, and best for beginners.


Ruby is a programming language that is often used for web development. It is usually the root of the Ruby on Rails web application framework (a full-featured web application framework). Beginners like it for the kindness and good community where you can get help and advice. The syntax is simple, and the language is associated with the largest technology corporations: Chirping; Airbnb; Bloomberg; Shopify.

To work effectively with it, developers need an integrated approach to problem-solving and well-developed abstract thinking. The latter will help to visualize what the user wants to see in the finished application.

Main advantages:

  • Enables rapid deployment of applications and sites.
  • Simple syntax, easy to read and understand.
  • Optimal programming style.
  • Excellent safety features.
  • A developed community.
  • A lot of useful tools.
  • High salaries for professionals.


  • There is no flexibility when assembling programs with unusual functionality.
  • Great reward for development mistakes.
  • Weak performance, slow speed.
  • Not as popular as other types of programming languages.
  • It is recommended to take a closer look at Ruby on Rails for those who want to be full developers.


C# was designed more to eliminate the disadvantages of the C++ language. It is goal-oriented and general-purpose with a wide range of applications. It often works with the platform .NET, applicable in the Unity game environment, to create scripts. Microsoft created the language as part of its .NET platform to develop applications for the Windows operating system.

C# syntax is very similar to that of other C languages. This makes it easy to understand if the developer moves from another C language family. C# helps you create cross-platform applications with Xamarin. People working with virtual reality should think about learning the language described. Its relevance for 2023 will therefore remain. It is also suitable for developing 3D and 2D games using the Unity engine (the best game creator, occupying the third part of the market).

A lot of applications are built with C#, including simple desktop programs and large-scale web portals.


  • The study will help to master the languages of the C family.
  • It easily integrates with Windows.
  • Suitable for corporate programs.
  • Supports universal, imperative, functional, and declarative programming styles.
  • It can work with a common code base.
  • A lot of functions.
  • Quick compilation and execution.


  • C# programs take longer to load than C++ programs.
  • Suitable for Microsoft Windows only.
  • Variables usually have the form of references.
  • To eliminate errors, you need a lot of programming knowledge and experience.

C# is a high-level language reminiscent of English, making it easy for beginners to learn. Abstract many tasks, unlike C++, it is useful to work with code through a PC. To study, you need basic literacy with a PC, an understanding of the C, C++, or Java language, and the main concepts of object-oriented programming.


Rust is another valuable programming language for 2023. It’s not as popular and in demand among developers, but it deserves attention. For example, in 2020, Stack Overflow conducted a survey. Rust was included in the list of favorite programming languages in the developer circle, of which 86% have worked with him for over 5 years.

Its focus is low-level programming systems, but Rust still focuses on safety and speed. The main emphasis is on code security, so programs cannot access certain parts of memory that they do not use.

Rust is not a language for beginners, it is harder to master than other types, but the skills will be worth it in the future because its popularity will continue to grow.


Java is a general-purpose programming language used by many platforms and companies. The important thing is that you don’t need to re-compile the code to work on any platform. In 2022, Java was recognized as the most useful and popular language, using more than 9 million developers worldwide. Programmers know the saying “Write once, run everywhere”: this is the best feature of Java. It was created in 1995 and has not lost popularity since then, although more modern languages have arisen.

Advantages of this language:

  • Platform agnostic due to JVM.
  • Simple syntax, high-level language, and easy to learn.
  • Extensive API and library availability (utilities, networks, database connection, etc.)
  • Higher memory safety management due to the exclusion of explicit pointers.
  • Multi-process support.
  • It provides automatic garbage collection.
  • Stability, reliability, and a great community.


  • It is memory hungry.
  • Verbose and complex code.
  • Slow and poor performance.
  • Paid commercial license.

Java is the main choice for people looking to develop Android programs and web applications. Skills to master include a comprehensive approach to problem-solving and knowledge of object-oriented structure.

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